Monday, September 22, 2008

Travels to the West of Qiu Chang Chun

Qiu Chang Chun Xi You Ji 长春真人西游记 was a record
of journey of Taoist monk Qiu Chuji from Shandong China through central Asia to Persia to
present himself before Genghis Khan.

In 1220, on the invitation of Genghis Khan with a golden tablet, Qiu Chuji left his home town Shangdong with eighteen disciples, and travelled through Peking and travelled north. In June, they reached Te Hing and stayed in the Lung Yun Taosit Temple from summer to end of winter. On February of 1221, they resumed their journey. When asked by friends and
disciples when to expect the master to return, the master answered "In three years, three years". On February 3, they reached Chui Ping Kou, they saw Tai Hang Mountain to their
south. Travelled north then north east, they arrived at Kai Li Po salt lake.

Lake Buyur, Hulunbuir, Ulan Bator, , Altay Mountains, Bishbulik, Dzungaria, Samarkand and arrived at Hindu Kush of Afganistan in 1222 and presented himself before Genghis Khan.

The journey to Persia and back took three years, from 1220 to 1224. The record was
written by a disciple Li Zhichang , who accompanied Qiu on the journey. The Travels consisted of two parts, the first part described the details of the travel to the west and back; the second part contains advices from Qiu Chuji to Genghis Khan.

Chang Chun Xi You Ji was published by another disciple Sun Xi, with a preface dated 1228. Xi You Ji was included in Dao Zang , but was forgotten for more than five hundred years. Until 1795 Qing dynasty scholars
Qian Daxin and Duan Yucai rediscovered it from Dao Zang in the Xuan Miao Taoist Temple in Suzhou,then Qian Daxin hand copied this work and distributed it.


Chang Chun Xi You Ji was first translated into Russian by the Archimandrite of Russian Orthodox Church Pekin Eccles Mission Palladius Kafarov in 1866.

In 1867 M. Pauthier translated an abridged version of Xi You Ji from Hai Guo Tu Zhi

1888, Dr. Emil Bretschneider, a Baltic German physician posted to the Russian Legation in Pekin, published his English translation of Chang Chun Xi you Ji.

Lingbao School

The Lingbao School , also known as the School of the Sacred Jewel or the School of Numinous Treasure, was an important school that emerged in China in between the and the Liu Song Dynasty in the early fifth century CE. It lasted for about two hundred years until it was absorbed into the Shangqing School during the Tang Dynasty. The Lingbao School is a synthesis of religious ideas that is based on Shangqing texts, the rituals of the , and Buddhist practices.

The beliefs of the Lingbao school were based on the Buddhist concept of reincarnation. The school's cosmology was also influenced by Buddhism, but still maintained many Daoist beliefs, including the idea that the world emerged from the Single Breath, and that an apocalypse would occur that only a limited few could avoid through faith. Its pantheon is similar to Shangqing and Celestial Master Daoism, with one of its most important gods being the form of Laozi. Alongside Laozi, other minor gods existed, some of whom were in charge of preparing spirits for reincarnation. Although reincarnation was an important concept in the Lingbao School, the earlier Daoist belief in attaining immortality remained. Likewise, Lingbao ritual was initially very similar to individual Celestial Master ritual, but went through a transformation that put more emphasis on collective rites. The most important scripture in the Lingbao School is known as the ''Five Talismans'' , which was compiled by Ge Chaofu and based on Ge Hong's earlier alchemical works.


The Lingbao School began in around 400 CE when the Lingbao scriptures were revealed to Ge Chaofu, the grand-nephew of Ge Hong. Ge Chaofu did not claim to have had the scriptures revealed to him directly from the spirits, but rather from a line of transmission going back to Ge Hong's great-uncle, Ge Xuan . Ge Chaofu transmitted the scriptures to two of his disciples, and the scriptures gained quick and immense popularity. In 471, Lu Xiujing compiled a catalogue of all the Lingbao texts, and also was responsible for reorganizing and standardizing Lingbao ritual. This organization of texts and ritual provided a solid foundation upon which the Lingbao School prospered in the subsequent centuries. Under the Tang Dynasty, the Shangqing School, better integrated with the aristocracy, was more influential in court. The Shangqing School, however, borrowed many Lingbao practices, thus further integrating the two schools. While the Lingbao school did not survive as a distinct entity, its ritual apparatus did, and it forms the basis for present-day Daoist ritual practice.



Many Lingbao beliefs are borrowed from Buddhism. These borrowings, however, were often clumsy and betrayed the Lingbao Daoists' poor understanding of Buddhism. The names of the many different deities and heavens were often given titles copied from Buddhism that were based on phonetic transcriptions of Sanskrit. Many Buddhist terms were borrowed, but given completely different meanings. The only significant borrowing from Buddhism was the idea of reincarnation.

Both Buddhism and the Lingbao School share the idea of the . These were rebirth into , as a , as an , as a or as a . After death, the adept's body would be alchemically refined in the Palace of Supreme Darkness located in the north, and in the aptly named Southern Palace in the south. The transmutation of the body consisted of two steps; the yin components of the person were refined in the Palace of Supreme Darkness, followed by the yang components in the Southern Palace. The Lingbao concept of rebirth is a sinicization of Buddhism, mixing traditional Chinese concepts with newly arrived Buddhist ideas.


Lingbao cosmology borrows heavily from Buddhism. Unlike previous cosmological systems which were divided into anywhere from four to nine regions, Lingbao cosmology supposed that there were ten regions, an idea borrowed from Buddhism. In addition to the cosmological regions, there were 32 heavens divided into four sectors, each with eight heavens that were placed horizontally on the periphery of the celestial disc. Like Buddhism, the heavens were divided into 'three worlds,' the worlds of desire, form and formlessness.

Certain traditionally Daoist ideas were retained in Lingbao cosmology, such as the idea that the world originated from the Single Breath, and then was divided into heaven and earth. However, the Single Breath is subdivided into three breaths that corresponds to three deities, the lords of the Celestial Treasure, of the Sacred Treasure and of the Divine Treasure. During the subsequent three cosmic eras in the three Daoist heavens, these three lords introduced the teachings of the ''Dadong'' , the ''Dongxuan'' and of the ''Dongshen'' . These three teachings form the basis for the later classification of texts in the Daozang.

notions that appeared in Shangqing Daoism were developed fully by Lingbao Daoists. Lingbao cosmology supposed that time was divided into cosmic cycles that were correlated with the . At the end of a cosmic era, the emperor of the colour that was associated with that era would descend onto earth and reveal a teaching that would save a fixed number of people from death. There were two types of cosmic eras, short ones that were characterized by an excess of Yin energy, and long ones that were characterized by an excess of Yang energy. At the end of a short era, the moon would produce a flood that eroded the mountains, caused the Nine Breaths of the universe to be renewed and the ten thousand emperors to change their ranking. At the end of a long era evil creatures were unleashed, heaven and earth were turned upside down, and metals and stones melted together. The people who followed the correct teaching revealed by the emperor would be gathered up by the Queen Mother of the West and transported to a 'land of bliss' that would not be affected by the apocalypse.


In addition to borrowing deities from the Celestial Masters and the Shangqing School, Lingbao also developed its own gods. The supreme god of Lingbao Daoists is known as the ''Yuanshi Tianzun'' or ''The Celestial Worthy of the Original Beginning,'' who played a similar role to the deified Laozi in the . According to the scriptures, this god went through a series of kalpa cycles that were given names similar to dynastic names, until emerging at the beginning of the ''Kaihuang'' period. The next most important god was ''Laojun,'' the deified form of Laozi, who was the Celestial Worthy's chief disciple. Below these two main gods in the celestial hierarchy were those deities associated with the Southern Palace, which was where spirits went after to death prepare for rebirth. The head of this group of gods was known as the Perfected of the Southern Extremities. Beneath him was the Director of the Equerry, who was in charge of the life records of the spirits, and Lord Han, who controlled Fengdu, the city of the dead. Below these principle gods in the Lingbao hierarchy, were other deities such as the ''Five Old Men,'' the ''Dragon Kings'' and the ''Demon Kings''.

Deities were not only present in the heavens, but also in the human body itself. These deities, with names such as the Director of Destiny and Peach Vigor, were responsible for maintaining the body's , guarding the registers of life and regulating the souls. Normally these deities resided in the heavens, but they could be activated by scriptural recitations in order to descend into the body.


Immortality techniques

Despite a belief in reincarnation, the Lingbao School maintained the traditional Daoist idea that certain techniques could allow an adherent to achieve immortality. One technique was to ingest the essence of the sun and the moon. This involved exposing oneself to the planets at certain times of the month, and then with one's eyes closed, visualizing their essence coagulating and entering the body. Once in the body, the sun's essence was matched to the heart and visualized as being red, while the moon's was matched with the kidney's and seen as black. Besides interior meditation practices, immortality could also be achieved through the ingestion of potions or the ingestion of .


Early Lingbao ritual was mostly done on an individual basis, and was done either in a meditation chamber, or the courtyard of a house. These practitioners were not professional priests, but rather 'students of the Dao'. Later on, as the Lingbao movement developed religious institutions and an established clergy, ritual practice became more of a communal rite.

Lingbao ritual shares a great deal with ritual in other Daoist traditions. Like other traditions, Lingbao rituals had a theatrical quality, that involved accompanying music, dances and chants. Lingbao Daoism also shared the multidimensional aspect of Daoist ritual, meaning that it was carried on at several different levels simultaneously. For example, while the external ritual was being performed, the priest would repeat the ritual within himself through interior meditation. In addition, rituals always involved three levels: heaven, earth and man.

There are three categories of ritual in Lingbao Daoism. The first type is known as the heavenly Golden Register of Rituals, and is carried out to prevent natural disasters. During the Tang Dynasty, this ritual was carried out in honour of the imperial family, but later it could be performed by anyone. The earthly Yellow Register ritual was performed in order to ensure the dead was at rest. The final type of ritual, which has not survived, was the human Jade Register, which was performed in order to ensure the salvation of mankind. Today, the Golden Register has assumed the role of the Jade register and in addition to preventing bad weather, also ensures salvation.


Lingbao scriptures arose as a direct result of the success of earlier Shangqing texts. Lingbao scriptures are all based on a text known as the ''Text of the Five Talismans'' , which was compiled by Ge Chaofu between 397 and 402 and borrowed from the work of Ge Hong, his great uncle. Being the most ancient Lingbao text, the ''Five Talismans'' provided the framework of the remainder of the Lingbao canon, which was based on the . Because all Lingbao texts descended from the ''Five Talismans'', it was believed that all the other Lingbao texts had been revealed to Ge Xuan, who was the believed to be the original owner of the ''Five Talismans''. Ge Xuan is purported to have transmitted the Lingbao texts first to a disciple Zheng Siyuan, who then transmitted it to Ge's grand-nephew Ge Hong , who is well-known for his alchemical innovations. The claim that the Lingbao texts derive from Ge Xuan, however, was likely a way of legitimizing them through the exaggeration of their antiquity. In reality, they were likely assembled by Ge Chaofu himself. Within a few years of the texts' dissemination, they had become extremely popular.

The canon itself is a mix of previous Daoist traditions, mixing features from the Shangqing School and the Celestial Masters, along with other ancient texts and even some Buddhist ideas. The two most important texts of the canon besides the ''Wufujing'' are the ''Red Book of Five Writings'' and the ''Scripture of Upper Chapters on Limitless Salvation'' . According to Lu Xiujing, who edited the Lingbao Canon, there were a total of 34 texts in the canon, of which three have been lost.

List of Celestial Masters

This is a list of the Celestial Masters, leaders of Zhengyi Dao and Wudoumi Dao.

List of Japanese researchers in Daoism

This is a list of Japanese researchers in Daoism:

*Fukui Fumimasa
*Fukui Koujun
*Fukunaga Mitsuji
*Girano Yoshitaro
*Hachiya Kunio
*Igarashi Toshitaka
*Kanaya Osamu
*Kimura Eichi
*Koda Rohan
*Kubo Noritada
*Maruyama Hiroshi
*Miyakawa Hisayuki
*Mugitani Kunio
*Ofuchi Ninji
*Oyanagi Shigeta
*Sakai Tadao
*Sawada Mizuho
*Tachibana Shiraki
*Takeuchi Yoshio
*Tsuda Sokichi
*Yoshioka Yoshitoyo

List of Lingbao Texts

This is a list of all works contained in the Canon as listed by Lu Xiujing in his catalogue of 437 CE.

Liu Zi Jue

The Six Healing Sounds or Liu Zi Jue is one of the common forms of Chinese qigong, and involves the coordination of movement and breathing patterns with specific sounds.


The Term Liu Zi Jue first appears in a book called ''On Caring for the Health of the Mind and Prolonging the Life Span'' written by Tao Hongjing of the Southern and Northern Dynasties . A leading figure of the Maoshan School of Taoism, Tao was renowned for his profound knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine. ''"One has only one way for inhalation but six for exhalation"'' he writes in the book.

Zou Pu'an of the Song Dynasty was a major contributor in terms of theroy and practice to the transmission of the exercise through his book ''The Supreme Knack for Health Preservation - Six-Character Approach to Breathing Exercises''.

No body movements accompanied the Liu Zi Jue exercises until the Ming Dynasty when Hu Wenhuan and Gao Lian wrote books on the subject. For instance they both included in their books the summary of Liu Zi Jue for despelling diseases and prolonging the life span, which combines controlled breathing with physical exercises.

There are a number of schools of exercises which incorporate elements of Liu Zi Jue, including Yi Jin Jing, and Da Yan Gong, but the sounds are uses as an aid to physical exercises in these dynamic Qigong which is different from Liu Zi Jue. An authoritative work on the subject is Ma Litang's ''Liu Zi Jue Health and Fitness Exercises'' for clinical application.

The theoretical basis of the Liu Zi Jue exercises is in line with the ancient theories intrinsic to Traditional Chinese Medicine of the Five Elements and the Five Solid Viscera. They tend to be on common ground on such issues as mouth forms and pronunciation methods, and the direction of body movements and mind follow the inner circulation law of the meridians.

The sounds/sections

* XU - Exercise/Sound
* HE - Exercise/Sound
* HU - Exercise/Sound
* SI - Exercise/Sound
* CHUI - Exercise/Sound
* XI - Exercise/Sound


''Note: The art may be spelled in different ways, for example:
Liu He Ba Fa ,
Lok Hap Baat Faat ,
and abbreviated as: LHBF''

Liuhebafa 六合八法拳 , also called "Xinyi Liuhebafa", and often referred to as "Water Boxing" 水拳 due to its principles, is a form of Chinese martial arts. The legendary Taoist sage Chen Tuan is credited with its origin and development. He was associated with the Hua Shan Taoist Monastery on Mount Hua in Shaanxi Province.


The Liuhebafa form "Zhu Ji 築基" was taught in the late nineteen thirties in Shanghai and Nanjing by Wu Yi Hui . It is said he had learned the art from three teachers: Yan Guo Xing, Chen Guang Di, and Chen He Lu.

Many of Wu Yi Hui's students had martial arts backgrounds and unfortunately modified the form to merge it with their own knowledge. This is one of several explanations for its similarities with other martial arts such as Xingyiquan, Baguazhang ,Taijiquan and Yiquan.

Six Harmonies and Eight Methods

The Six Harmonies and the Eight Methods are the guiding principles of LiuHebafa that give it its name.

Six Harmonies

# 體合于心 Body and Mind Combine
# 心合于意 Mind and Intent Combine
# 意合于氣 Intent and Chi Combine
# 氣合于神 Chi and Spirit Combine
# 神合于動 Spirit and Movement Combine
# 動合于空 Movement and Emptiness Combine

Eight Methods

# 氣 Chi
# 骨 Bone
# 形 Shape
# 隨 Follow
# 提 Rise
# 還 Return
# 勒 Retain
# 伏 Conceal


The system of Liuhebafa, called Huayue Xiyi Men, as taught by Wu Yi Hui contains several forms , including bare hand and weapons forms as well as Qigong methods.

Hand forms

* 三盤十二勢 San Pan Shi Er Shi - 3 Divisions 12 Spirits
* 築基 Zhu Ji - Discovering the Foundations
* 呂紅八勢 Lu Hong Ba Shi - 8 Essences of Lu Hong's Fist
* 龍虎戰 Long Hu Zhan - Dragon and Tiger Fighting
* 螫龍遊 Zhe Long You - Coiled Dragon Swimming
* 螫龍拳 Zhe Long Chuan - Coiled Dragon Fist

Weapon forms

* 心意棍 Xin Yi Guan - Heart of Intent Staff
* 露花刀 Lu Hua Dao - Dew Mist Broadsword
* 玉川劍 Yu Chuan Jian - Jade River Straightsword

Internal exercises

* 韋佗功 Wei Tuo Gong - Standing meditation
* 太陽功 Tai Yang Gong - Solar Meditation
* 一杰混元功 Yi Jie Hun Yuan Gong - Primary Definitive Force
* 先天座 Xian Tian Zhuo - Pre-Heaven Meditation
* 三盤推手 San Pan Tui Shou - 3 Divisions Push Hands

''source: information and translations provided by ""''